C D E F
G H I J
K L M N
O P Q R
S T U V
W X Y Z
Resistance- The ability to resist removal or damage from
Hardness- Chemicals, generally metal fluorosilicates, applied
to concrete or terrazzo, which react with the free lime and
calcium carbonates present to form silica quartz, a very hard
substance. The result is con-crete or terrazzo with a harder
surface than that obtained without acid hardening.
Specific types of building blocks (monomers) used in creating
polymers and resins. Acrylics add tough-ness, durability, and
removal properties to the poly-mer or resin.
Ingredients- Ingredients, which promote claimed results.
Usu-ally, this term is associated with products registered with
the E P A, in which case the active ingredients are those constituents
which are recognized as providing the claimed pesticidal properties,
e.g., insecticide, rodenticide, bactericide, etc.
The ability of a floor finish to adhere to the substrate by
physical or chemical means.
Soluble Polymer- A polymer, which can form a clear solution
when, dissolved in a sufficient amount of base such as ammonia
An organic chemical characterized by the pres-ence of nitrogen
and an alkaline pH. Unlike am-monia type strippers, amine type
strippers are pleas-ant to work with, as they are free at strong
ammonia odor and do not irritate the nose and eyes.
Detergent- A material which carries a negative charge. Most
soaps are anionic, as they combine fatty ads and an alkali.
Oleate Soap, Amine Soap, Sodium Soap and combinations of the
three are frequently used in cleaners.
Any material added to a floor polish to control foam. Most commonly
used substances are silicone emulsions.
Tile- A flooring material made of asbestos fibers, pig-ments
and inert fillers bound together with an as-phalt or resin binder.
Ingredients are mixed, heated, then rolled out in sheets and
cut to size. Asphalt tile is also furnished in a grade designated
as -grease proof. Oils and solvents should be avoided on all
types. One possible way to distinguish asphalt file from vinyl
asbestos, which is also hard and brittle at nor-mal temperatures,
is to rub the file in an incon-spicuous spot with a rag dampened
with petroleum naphtha. Any color transfer from the file to
the cloth indicates that the tile is asphalt instead of vinyl
as-bestos. Rubber tile will also show some color trans-fer,
but rubber tile can be indented with a fingernail.
Capable of being decomposed or broken by bio-logical organisms
or action. Generally refers to detergents and cleaners.
Whitening or dulling caused during application of floor finishes.
It can occur if re-application is done too quickly or if too
much product is used, and usu-ally occurs with self-sensitive
(alkali soluble) sys-tems. Bite-in can be detected by increased
drag during application of multiple coats.
Marking- Black marks left on the floor finish caused by
rub-ber being abraded from rubber heels of shoes.
Heel Mark Resistance- Resistance to permanent transfer of
material from a shoe heel to a floor finish. Carefully selected
waxes are employed to improve black heel mark resistance.
Requires mechanical action to produce a gloss.
Floor Finish- A term used to describe any solvent or water
based finish requiring mechanical action to improve gloss and/or
Multiple layers of dirt, grime, wax, or floor finish.
A maintenance method used to produce a gloss with frictional
heat and vigorous mechanical action.
A hard wax obtained from the leaves of the Carnuba palm tree.
This wax is emulsifiable and yields a glossy, durable, buffable
film when property formu-lated in aqueous floor waxes. Carnuba
wax is graded in five categories. Only types I and 2 are used
appreciably in floor waxes because of there lighter color. Types
3 through 5 come from more mature leaves, and are darker in
Tile- A flooring material made from a mixture of special
clays and colorants that are fused together at high temperature
into a hard brick like or porcelain sub-stance. Sometimes coated
with a thin film of vitre-ous material called glazing.
Resistance- Ability to withstand an assortment of chemicals
such as gasoline or alcohol without being damaged.
Clearness; Lack of haze or light scattering properties.
To blend together to unite into a whole to fuse. As related
to floor finishes, the formulation of the film as the water
A solvent, usually a glycol or glycol ether, which helps promote
the union of individual emulsion particles into a continuous
A flooring material made from a mixture of sand, gravel, Portland
cement and modifying additives, which react, with water to form
a hard rocklike sub-stance. Portland cement is the 'glue' which
holds the other materials together. Hardening occurs through
hydration of these materials.
Flooring- A flooring material that will conduct electricity
to reduce hazards from unwanted static electricity such as sparks
in an explosive environment. Conductive floors offer a resistance
of 25,000 to 1,000,000 ohms per 3 lineal feet. Conductive floor-ing
materials include linoleum, terrazzo. ceramic tile, vinyl, and
rubber. Conductivity is achieved by using acetylene carbon,
cupric salts, or other spe-cial conducting materials. Wire mesh
may also be laid directly under the tile to assure uniform con-ductance
of the entire floor.
Tile- A flooring material composed of ground cork with or
without resins that is compressed and heat cured into the finished
product. Chosen mostly for its beauty and sound deadening properties.
Cork is best maintained with organic solvent-based prod-ucts
such as Traffic Wax paste or liquid.
A solvent which modifies the performance or sta-bility characteristics
Formation of an opaque off colored layer at the top of a liquid
An entity, which attaches two, chains of polymer molecules together
by forming a chemical bond.
Mopping- A maintenance method using a well-wrung out mop
dampened with water or cleaning solution to re-move light soil
A substance used to reduce foaming due to agitation. Defoamers
include silicone fluids and organic phosphates.
A chemical which is used for cleaning surfaces, which may posses
various properties such as surface wetting, soil emulsification,
soil dispersion or soil suspension. A type of chemical which
possesses surfactant properties, including surface wetting,
soil dispersion, etc. This detergent chemical does not ionize
with positive or negative charges. It is compatible in mixtures
with either cationic or anionic surfactants. It is not compatible,
however, with phenolic germicides.
Resistance- Ability to withstand treatment with detergent
solution such as 1:40 GP Forward to water without being damaged.
Embodiment- Presence of trapped dirt and foreign matter
which cannot be removed by detergent washing. Soft films or
excess plasticizer are the usual causes of dirt embodiment.
Floor Finish- A term meaning the same as self-polishing
Buffing- A maintenance method using floor machine and appropriate
polishing pad or brush to restore floor finish to glossy appearance.
Stripping- A maintenance technique used to remove floor
finish with a floor machine, suitable pad, and spray stripping
Time- Four types of drying phenomena exist:
Dry to Touch - (sometimes called dry to eye or visual
dryness) Time when film feels or appears dry.
Tack Free Time - Time when dry materials, such as dust
or tissue, cannot be made to adhere to the surface even when
pressure is applied.
Recoat Time- Time when additional coat can be applied
to previous coat without bad effects such as whitening.
Full Cure Time - Time when physical properties of film are
fully developed and, therefore, cease to change.
Resistance to change from original appearance. Durability is
term used to describe how long polish film will resist changes
in appearance caused by foot traffic or other types of wear
before spray buffing, recoating, or stripping is considered
necessary. Terms used to describe durability include abrasion
resistance, adhesion, black heel mark resistance, lack of dirt
embodiment, hardness, scuff resistance, scratch resistance,
detergent resistance, and gloss retention.
Mopping-A maintenance method used to remove dust from floors
with a dry or specially treated mop.
A chemical agent used to suspend one incompatible material in
another. Generally, one end of an emulsifier molecule is soluble
in water; the other end is soluble in organic solvent. This
dual solubility helps hold the dissimilar liquids together.
A stable mixture of water and water insoluble materials)
in a finely divided state accomplished means of one or more
surface-active agents, such as soap or synthetic emulsifiers.
Polymer- A polymer which exists in two phases. A continuous
phase, which is usually water and a dispersed phase, which consists
of polymer particles suspended in the continuous phase through
the use of substances, called emulsifiers.
Finish- A temporary coating applied to flooring material
during manufacture for ease of manufacturing and protection
during shipment and installation. It is recommended that this
coating, often referred to as mill finish, be removed before
being treated with a polish.
An extremely thin continuous sheet of substance. The protective
value of any film depends on it being 100% continuous, i.e.,
without holes or cracks, since it must form an efficient barrier
to molecules of atmospheric water vapor, oxygen, etc.
Small round surface imperfections in a polish film caused
by localized differences in surface tension, induced convection,
or by the wet film receding from incompatible entities in the
product or on the substrate. Oil, silicone, or other hydrophobic
materials are the usually causes of fisheyes.
Polish- A temporary coating that enhances the appearance
and protects the substrate to which it is applied. Also called
Floor Finish, Floor Wax.
Sealer- A coating, temporary or permanent applied to a floor
before applying finishing coats to help fill voids and pours
in the floor surface. Fewer finish coats are necessary because
less product is absorbed by the floor and results in a more
uniform appearance. Floor sealers might be necessary to promote
adhesion of finish coats.
A fluorinated surfactant which, through its ability to lower
the surface tension of liquid, can improve the leveling and
wetting characteristics of floor polishes.
A combination of visual perceptions which promote the appearance
of wetness. Terms used when describing gloss include:
Depth how deep or thick the surface appears
Clarity lock of haziness, cloudiness, or a milky appearance.
Uniformity lack of unevenness.
Reflectance (shine) ration of reflected versus incident light.
Distinctness of image lack of distortion that the surface causes
to reflected images.
Sheen amount of low active reflectance
Hue the amount of bluish coloration promoting the perception
of depth seen in clear films.
An expression of the concentration of inorganic salts in water
which prevents effective cleaning and germicidal action. Hardness
is measured in ppm (parts per million) calculated as calcium
Knoop Hardness value relating resistance to indentation by a
weighted wedge shaped diamond. (b) Pencil Hardness a measure
related to the hardness of various grades of graphite. Pencil
Hardness is related to a polishes’ resistance to both indentation
and tearing, Very soft 4B, 3B, 2B, B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, 4H,
5H, 6H, 7H, 8H Very Hard.
Solids- A floor polish which has a 20% or higher non-volatile
content. Unlike concentrates high solids products are generally
used without dilution.
A bluish coloration promoting the perception of depth in
Testing- The evaluation of performance of a product, procedure,
or item of equipment under as compared to evaluation under highly
controlled artificial conditions (laboratory testing).
The propensity for an applied aqueous polishes to spread and
dry to smooth, uniform film.
Aid- A substance which can be added to a floor polish which
allows it to dry to a more even appearing film.
A flooring material composed of mixture of oxidized linseed
oil, resin, and various fillers such as sawdust, ground cork,
mineral filler and coloring material which is cured for several
weeks in specially heated buildings. Linoleum is soft, porous,
and tends to discolor and become more porous when subjected
to amines and alkaline strippers and cleaners.
A flooring material composed of a form of limestone hard
enough to be polished. Purest grade used by sculptors is called
Statuary Marble. A softer, more porous version called Travertine
is usually used for floors. Travertine Marble is known to harden
on exposure to air. Marble is damaged by alkaline cleaners,
soaps and acids; it also stains easily.
Complex- A crosslink of a bivalent metal ion (usually zinc)
between the acid functional groups of two polymer chains. Metal
complexes can provide a reaction site for aid in removal, detergent
resistance, and durability in floor polishes.
Interlock- A formulation technique by which metal is chemically
complexed with the polymer and/or resin in an aqueous finish
or sealer. The use of bivalent metal ions such as zinc or zirconium
to bind together and form a crosslinked network with add containing
polymer chains. This technique causes the dried film to be more
durable and detergent resistant while still allowing its ready
removal with amine type strippers.
Forming Temperature)- The temperature below which a polymer
or floor polish will not form a continuous film.
Finish- A finish applied by the file manufacturer to resilient
floor tile, which must be removed for proper sealing and finishing.
and Shine- A maintenance method using a special mop on composition
which lightly cleans and improves the gloss of a worn floor
finish. Gloss improvement is accomplished by a new thin coat
of product or possibly by rejuvenation of the original finish.
Wax Flooring- A broad class of flooring materials usually
having a clear organic wear layer, usually urethane over a vinyl
backing. It is usually textured and designed for minimum maintenance.
Buffable Finish- Generally, a finish, which dries to a high
durable gloss and cannot be dry buffed to restore shine. Since
the advent of spray buffing, this term is seldom used. Non-ionic
Initials of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, a federal
act passed in 1970. O.S.H.A. is designed to provide every working
man and woman in the nation with safe and healthful working
conditions. O.S.H A. provides the standards inspection and enforcement
program to accomplish these goals.
The measurement symbol used to express the degree of acidity
or alkalinity. A pH of I expresses an extreme condition, while
a pH of 14 is highly alkaline. The pH scale runs from less than
1.0 to 14, and neutrality is centered at pH 7.0.
Migration- Migration of ingredients from there intended
location. Migration of plasticizers from flooring materials
can cause tackiness in floor finishes or adhesion problems.
Migration from floor finish to flooring is also possible.
An organic compound to a polymer to increase its flexibility
and toughness. Plasticizers contribute to the durability, gloss,
and leveling of a floor polish.
Plasticizer used primarily in finishes.
A chemical compound composed of many similar, smaller parts
chemically linked to one another. As related to emulsion floor
finishes and sealers, polymers are the major film forming agent
which contributes gloss and durability to the finish or sealer.
A thermoplastic polymer which has excellent hardness and
A condition where a fine dust occurs on the finished floor surface,
often obvious when tracked onto adjacent carpeting. Often, powdering
is due to dust settling out where construction or other sources
of dust are present. Other times, powdering is indicative of
a lack of floor finish (or sealer) adhesion, loss of plasticizing
agents to the substrate or to cleaning solutions, or application
while temperature or relative humidity is too low to allow proper
film formation. The causes of lack of adhesion are numerous
soap residues, insufficient stripping of old finish, applying
finish too thinly.
A maintenance method where additional coats of floor finish
are applied without prior stripping. Successful recoat is dependent
on substrate, preparation of substrate, and amount of time between
Capable of withstanding shock or pressure without permanent
deformation or rupture. Asphalt, vinyl, linoleum are resilient
type flooring materials.
Flooring- Flexible flooring materials including asphalt tile,
cork, linoleum, no wax, rubber, seamless floors, vinyl, and
As related to emulsion finishes and sealers, resins are
materials, which contribute primarily to leveling and gloss
of the resultant film. Resins are polymers, but contain fewer
chemically linked units than what are commonly called polymers.
A maintainer for UHS finishes which adds 1/4 of 1 coat of
Flooring materials made up of natural or synthetic rubber rolled
and heat cured into a final product.
Imperfection in the smoothness of a polish film caused by
a scraping action.
Damage to a polish film caused by the frictional heat and mechanical
action from a high-speed impact of shoe material.
Scratches or marring of the finish, due primarily to foot traffic,
which appears dull as compared to unscuffed areas.
Application of a coating to a bare substrate and to fill
pores to prevent excessive absorption of the finish coats.
A floor finish or furniture polish that dries to a shine
and needs no further effort to bring about a shine. Most modem
polishes are of the self-shine type. Other terms use to describe
this type of polish are Dry Bright and Non Buffable.
Term applied to low angle gloss.
Resistance- The drag noticed when walking on a floor that
results in safer footing; the amount of resistance to slipping,
usually with reference to the sole or heel of a shoe on a floor.
Hydroxide- Caustic used in the manufacture of detergents
and soap. Sodium Metasilicate- Base for detergent formulations.
Silicate- Catalyst for soaps and detergents. Sodium Xylenesulfonate-
Water softener used in detergents.
Content (Non-Volatile)- That portion of the product (floor
finish, sealer, cleaner, etc.) which remains as the film or
residue after drying has occurred. The solids content is usually
expressed as percent by weight of the total product. Often,
solids is considered as a measurement of the quality, durability,
and performance of a product. This is false logic and can be
very misleading as a measure of any product performance property.
Buffable- A liquid or paste composed of waxes, synthetic
or natural, dispensed in an organic solvent. When applied and
allowed to dry, solvent based buffable polishes haze and must
be buffed to achieve gloss.
A thick resistant cell coat which forms within the cell
wall as a resting stage. The spore is very resis-tant to disinfectants
and germicides and usually is usually destroyed only by sterilization
procedures (autoclaving, ethylene oxide, etc.).
Buff- To renew, touch up, or maintain a floor by spraying
an approved spray buff product followed by ma-chine buffing.
Restores worn floor coatings.
Buffing- A maintenance procedure used to restore a worn
dull floor finish to a glossy appearance with a floor machine,
special buffing pad, and special prod-uct. A typical spray buff
operation consists of spray-ing a fine mist of product onto
a section of floor, then using a floor machine equipped with
a buffing pad to buff the floor finish to a gloss.
Ability to resist change in physical or performance properties
due to time or environmental stresses such as freezing and thawing,
heat, or microbial attack. Emulsion floor care products are
considered stable if changes caused by aging under expected
envi-ronmental extremes will not affect product safety, product
performance, or be detectable by the con-sumer for the duration
for the products expected shelf life.
The act or process, physical or chemical, which destroys or
eliminates all forms of life, especially microorganisms.
A non-uniform appearance left in a floor finish film by the
A product used to remove coatings from floor sub-strates. Specific
types are needed for water based coatings; other Types are needed
for solvent based coatings.
A maintenance method for removal of floor finishes. After the
stripping operation, the floors are rinsed thor-oughly before
applying a fresh coat of floor polish. A monomer or building
block used in the prepara-tion of emulsion polymers and resins
used in floor finishes and sealers. Styrene imparts very hard,
glossy, water-resistant properties.
Tension- That property, due to molecular forces, by which
the surface film of all liquids tends to bring the con-tained
volume into a form having the least superfi-cial area.
A contraction of the words 'surface active agent.' This is the
general name given to the type of sur-face- active agents used
in cleaners. The surfac-tant reduces surface tension and provides
improved wetting, emulsifying, penetrating, and dispersing properties.
There are three types of surfactants: anionic, cationic, and
An ingredient that, by its nature, multiplies the ef-fectiveness
of the product. For example, an insec-ticide plus a synergist
does not add up as I + 1 = 2, but rather 1 + 1 = 4 or perhaps
8, when property balanced.
A polished surface floor consisting of marble or gran-ite chips
mixed with a Portland cement matrix. The mixture is trowed onto
the floor, leveled, and allowed to cure for a period of 5 to
6 days. The surface is then ground with an abrasive stone grinder
and polished. Use of harsh acids and alkalis should be avoided.
Also prepared in factories as finished slabs.
A polymer that softens when exposed to heat and returns to its
original condition when cooled to room temperature. The polymers,
resins and waxes used in floor polishes are thermoplastic.
to Recoat- The time from application when an additional
coat of floor polish can be applied without damaging the previous
Coating- A maintenance procedure for applying an addi-tional
coat of floor finish. Top Scrubbing Floor cleaning operation
using detergent solution and floor machine equipped with a special
clean-ing pad. After scrubbing, the floor is rinsed and allowed
scrubbing- is usually conducted so those additional coats
of floor finish can be ap-plied without stripping off the previous
A protective coating composed of a vegetable oil (linseed, tung,
etc.) and a solvent, or of a synthetic or natural resin and
solvent. A flooring material composed of a mixture of vari-ous
vinyl compounds (Vinyl Chloride, Vinyl Acetate), asbestos, ground
limestone, plasticizers, and colorants. Heated mixture is rolled
into a final prod-uct. Noted for superior grease resistance
and ease of maintenance. It indents and is susceptible to heel
damage. It is porous and requires sealing to prevent staining.
Vinyl Asbestos tiles are generally hard, brittle and appear
to be porous on close in-spection. Occasionally, discrete white
filler par-ticles can be seen in the tile.
Flooring- A flooring material made up of a mixture of polyvinyl
chloride and plasticizers Pigments are added for color. Vinyl
flooring is usually flexible; fine textured, and appears to
be relatively non-porous.
Buffable Floor Finish- A water based emulsion coating whose
appear-ance and/ or gloss may be improved through me-chanical
action. The primary film forming ingredi-ents in this type of
product there are usually waxes.
Self-Polishing- A water based polish, not necessarily an
emulsion, which dried to a shine without mechanical action.
Urethane- A colloidal dispersion of isocyanate containing
poly-mers noted for casting very tough and flexible films. The
major benefit obtained from this material is abrasion resistance.
A low melting compound of high molecular weight similar in composition
to fats and oils. There are two types: Natural (animal and vegetable
derived) and Synthetic (such as polymers of ethylene). The wax
functions as a film in floor polishes to help prevent scuffs
and black marks and as a slip resis-tance moderator.
Emulsion- A stable mixture of one or more waxy materials
helps in a water suspension through the use of emulsifiers,
surfactants or soaps.
Ability of a floor finish or cleaner to spread over substrate